Psoriasis

Psoriasis (squamous lichen) is an inflammatory skin disease characterized by numerous manifestations. It occurs equally often in men and women.

Risk factors

  • Mechanical injury and skin irritation.
  • Infection (streptococcus).
  • Stress.
  • Endocrine diseases.
  • Medications (hormones, antimalarial drugs, interferon).
  • Alcohol abuse.

Manifestations of psoriasis

The shell is characterized by the presence of a homogeneous evidence in the form of a plate covered with loosely seated silver-white scales, 1-3 mm to 2-3 cm in pink-red color. As a result of external growth, the elements can be combined into boards of different sizes and shapes, sometimes occupying large parts of the skin. Plaques usually occur on the skin of the extensor surface of the limbs, especially on the elbow and knee joints, trunk and scalp.

signs of psoriasis on the handspsoriasis on the skin of the body

The appearance of fresh elements is typical of wounds and combs. When psoriatic plaques rupture, the symptoms characteristic of the disease are encountered: peeling increases peeling and causes it to coalesce with candle stearin; a bright, moist surface appears after taking the scales; Drops appear bleeding with more itching. Hair is not affected.

There are the following types of psoriasis:

  • normal,
  • exudative,
  • arthropathic,
  • pustules
  • psoriatic erythroderma.

The common form (psoriasis vulgaris) is characterized by a rash of flat pink-red plaques measuring 0. 5 cm or more, covered with silver-white scales.

The exudative form is characterized by the formation of grayish-yellow crusty scales on the psoriatic plaques due to hydration with exudate, sometimes leakage is detected in large wrinkles.

The most severe forms of psoriasis - pustular, arthropathic and psoriatic erythroderma - can develop from the onset or later stages of the disease as a result of adverse factors or inappropriate treatment.

Arthropathic psoriasis affects the small joints of the hands and feet, but other or all of the joints can also be affected. Sometimes articular manifestations occur before skin rashes. With psoriatic erythroderma, all skin is involved in the painful process, symptoms of intoxication (nausea, weakness, headache) develop. Pustular psoriasis manifests itself with pustular elements on the surface.

All forms of the disease are characterized by damage to the nail in the form of thickening of the nail plates, the exact identification of depressions on the surface, or the formation of red spots under the nail plate.

Diagnosis is made by a dermatologist using laboratory and instrumental research methods:

  • General blood test.
  • Skin biopsy.

Psoriasis treatment

Treatment of psoriasis is aimed at suppressing the inflammatory reaction of the skin. Therapy is determined by the form, stage, prevalence of the process, the presence of co-morbidities, taking into account the age and sex of the patient.

In some cases with mild manifestations, it is sufficient to prescribe external therapy in the form of salicylic ointment, Naftalan preparations, resin, hormonal ointments. Severe forms of psoriasis are treated with drugs of different groups, physiotherapy methods, foreign drugs, etc.

Treatment is carried out taking into account the stage of the psoriasis process.

Progressive stage therapy requires special attention and caution. During this period, intravenous hemodesis 2-3 times a week, intravenous solution of 30% sodium thiosulfate, 10% solution of calcium gluconate in 10 ml each, various enterosorbents are prescribed. With an increase in blood pressure, intramuscular administration of a 25% solution of magnesium sulfate is recommended. External emollients or 1-2% salicylic ointment are used.

For external therapy in the progressive stage of psoriasis is contraindicated the use of drugs containing resins, irritants and high concentrations. It is recommended to use physiotherapy procedures after the inflammation is reduced.

Ointments containing naphthalene, resin, salicylic acid can be used in the stages of the stable and decreasing course.

One of the most effective therapy methods is PUVA therapy or photochemotherapy.

Photochemotherapy is the combined use of ultraviolet radiation (wavelengths between 320 and 420 nm) with light-sensitive drugs. The use of photosensitizers is based on its ability to increase the skin's sensitivity to ultraviolet rays and stimulate the formation of skin pigment - melanin. The dose of medication is selected individually, taking into account the patient's weight. Procedures are performed 3-4 times a week, 20-25 sessions are scheduled for the course. PUVA therapy is contraindicated in acute infectious diseases, exacerbation of chronic diseases, cardiovascular decompensation, oncology, diabetes, liver and kidney damage.

External treatment of psoriasis, peeling, itching, softening of the skin is prescribed to all patients to eliminate inflammation. For this purpose, substances containing salicylic acid and hormones are widely used. The most popular are drugs containing hormones and salicylic acid.

Creams are prescribed in the absence of obvious inflammation, with inflammation, in the presence of rashes on the face; lotions - for damage to the scalp; Ointment preparations for psoriasis are most commonly used, especially on the surface of plaques. Do not use products containing hormones for a long time and on large areas of skin.

An effective remedy is activated zinc pyrithione, which is available in the form of creams, aerosols and shampoos.

Diet plays a role in the development and treatment of psoriasis. A diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and a low-protein diet are considered beneficial by many. On the other hand, diet is definitely an individual matter. Allergies and food sensitivity play a role in the worsening of the disease in some patients. The use of dietary supplements (such as fish oil) is considered beneficial for many patients.

Course and forecast

Psoriasis has a wavy course with a period of subsidence and exacerbation. Flames often occur in autumn and winter (autumn-winter form), less often in summer (summer form). The prognosis is favorable for patients with general psoriasis, severe forms (pustular, arthropathic, erythroderma), disability is possible.

Pregnancy can have an unexpected effect on the course of psoriasis. During pregnancy, you should avoid the use of resin or hormone-containing ointments and systemic therapy.